HTML Character Reference

A guide to adding symbols and special characters to your web projects.

Blog article by James Newcombe. Originally posted 04 October 2012.

Ascii Characters

Symbol Decimal Entity Description
  Space
! ! Exclamation Mark
" " Quotation Mark
# # Octothorpe
$ $ Dollar
% % Percent
& & & Ampersand
' Apostrophe
( ( Left Bracket
) ) Right Bracket
* * Asterisk
+ + Plus
, , Comma
- - Hyphen
. . Full Stop
/ / Slash
: 0 Colon
; &#059; Semicolon
< &#060; &lt; Less Than
= &#061; Equals
> &#062; &gt; Greater Than
? &#063; Question Mark
@ &#064; Commercial At
[ &#091; Left Square Bracket
\ &#092; Backslash
] &#093; Right Square Bracket
^ &#094; Caret
_ &#095; Underscore
` &#096; Grave Accent
{ &#123; Left Curly Brace
| &#124; Vertical Bar
} &#125; Right Curly Brace
~ &#126; Tilde

Latin 1 (ISO-8859-1)

Symbol Decimal Entity Description
&#160; &nbsp; Nonbreaking Space
¡ &#161; &iexcl; Inverted Exclamation Mark
¢ &#162; &cent; Cent
£ &#163; &pound; Pound
¤ &#164; &curren; General Currency
¥ &#165; &yen; Yen
¦ &#166; &brvbar; Broken Vertical Bar
§ &#167; &sect; Section Sign
¨ &#168; &uml; Umlaut
© &#169; &copy; Copyright
ª &#170; &ordf; Feminine Ordinal
« &#171; &laquo; Left Angle Quote
¬ &#172; &not; Not
­ &#173; &shy; Soft Hyphen
® &#174; &reg; Registered Trademark
¯ &#175; &macr; Macron Accent
° &#176; &deg; Degree
± &#177; &plusmn; Plus or Minus
² &#178; &sup2; Superscript 2
³ &#179; &sup3; Superscript 3
´ &#180; &acute; Acute Accent
µ &#181; &micro; Micron
&#182; &para; Pilcrow
· &#183; &middot; Middle Dot
¸ &#184; &cedil; Cedilla
¹ &#185; &sup1; Superscript 1
º &#186; &ordm; Masculine Ordinal
» &#187; &raquo; Right Angle Quote
¼ &#188; &frac14; Fraction: Quarter
½ &#189; &frac12; Fraction: Half
¾ &#190; &frac34; Fraction: Three Quarters
¿ &#191; &iquest; Inverted Question Mark
À &#192; &Agrave; Capital A, Grave Accent
Á &#193; &Aacute; Capital A, Acute Accent
 &#194; &Acirc; Capital A, Circumflex Accent
à &#195; &Atilde; Capital A, Tilde Accent
Ä &#196; &Auml; Capital A, Umlaut
Å &#197; &Aring; Capital A, Ring
Æ &#198; &AElig; Capital AE Ligature
Ç &#199; &Ccedil; Capital C, Cedilla
È &#200; &Egrave; Capital E, Grave Accent
É &#201; &Eacute; Capital E, Acute Accent
Ê &#202; &Ecirc; Capital E, Circumflex Accent
Ë &#203; &Euml; Capital E, Umlaut
Ì &#204; &Igrave; Capital I, Grave Accent
Í &#205; &Iacute; Capital I, Acute Accent
Î &#206; &Icirc; Capital I, Circumflex Accent
Ï &#207; &Iuml; Capital I, Umlaut
Ð &#208; &ETH; Capital Eth, Icelandic
Ñ &#209; &Ntilde; Capital N, Tilde
Ò &#210; &Ograve; Capital O, Grave Accent
Ó &#211; &Oacute; Capital O, Acute Accent
Ô &#212; &Ocirc; Capital O, Circumflex Accent
Õ &#213; &Otilde; Capital O, Tilde Accent
Ö &#214; &Ouml; Capital O, Umlaut
× &#215; &times; Multiplication
Ø &#216; &Oslash; Capital O, Slash
Ù &#217; &Ugrave; Capital U, Grave Accent
Ú &#218; &Uacute; Capital U, Acute Accent
Û &#219; &Ucirc; Capital U, Circumflex Accent
Ü &#220; &Uuml; Capital U, Umlaut
Ý &#221; &Yacute; Capital Y, Acute Accent
Þ &#222; &THORN; Capital Thorn, Icelandic
ß &#223; &szlig; Small SZ Ligature, German
à &#224; &agrave; Small A, Grave Accent
á &#223; &aacute; Small A, Acute Accent
â &#226; &acirc; Small A, Circumflex Accent
ã &#227; &atilde; Small A, Tilde
ä &#228; &auml; Small A, Umlaut
å &#229; &aring; Small A, Ring
æ &#230; &aelig; Small AE Ligature
ç &#231; &ccedil; Small C, Cedilla
è &#232; &egrave; Small E, Grave Accent
é &#233; &eacute; Small E, Acute Accent
ê &#234; &ecirc; Small E, Circumflex Accent
ë &#235; &euml; Small E, Umlaut
ì &#236; &igrave; Small I, Grave Accent
í &#237; &iacute; Small I, Acute Accent
î &#238; &icirc; Small I, Circumflex Accent
ï &#239; &iuml; Small I, Umlaut
ð &#240; &eth; Small Eth, Icelandic
ñ &#241; &ntilde; Small N, Tilde
ò &#242; &ograve; Small O, Grave Accent
ó &#243; &oacute; Small O, Acute Accent
ô &#244; &ocirc; Small O, Circumflex Accent
õ &#245; &otilde; Small O, Tilde
ö &#246; &ouml; Small O, Umlaut
÷ &#247; &divide; Division
ø &#248; &oslash; Small O, Slash
ù &#249; &ugrave; Small U, Grave Accent
ú &#250; &uacute; Small U, Acute Accent
û &#251; &ucirc; Small U, Circumflex Accent
ü &#252; &uuml; Small U, Umlaut
ý &#253; &yacute; Small Y, Acute Accent
þ &#254; &thorn; Small Thorn, Icelandic
ÿ &#255; &yuml; Small Y, Umlaut

Latin Extended A

Symbol Decimal Entity Description
Π&#338; &OElig; Capital OE Ligature
œ &#339; &oelig; Small OE Ligature
Š &#352; &Scaron; Capital S, Caron
š &#353; &scaron; Small S, Caron
Ÿ &#376; &Yuml; Capital Y, Umlaut

Latin Extended B

Symbol Decimal Entity Description
ƒ &#402; &fnof; Small f with Hook

Spacing Modified Letters

Symbol Decimal Entity Description
ˆ &#710; &circ; Circumflex Accent
˜ &#732; &tilde; Tilde

Greek

Symbol Decimal Entity Description
Α &#913; &Alpha; Capital Alpha
Β &#914; &Beta; Capital Beta
Γ &#915; &Gamma; Capital Gamma
Δ &#916; &Delta; Capital Delta
Ε &#917; &Epsilon; Capital Epsilon
Ζ &#918; &Zeta; Capital Zeta
Η &#919; &Eta; Capital Eta
Θ &#920; &Theta; Capital Theta
Ι &#921; &Iota; Capital Iota
Κ &#922; &Kappa; Capital Kappa
Λ &#923; &Lambda; Capital Lambda
Μ &#924; &Mu; Capital Mu
Ν &#925; &Nu; Capital Nu
Ξ &#926; &Xi; Capital Xi
Ο &#927; &Omicron; Capital Omicron
Π &#928; &Pi; Capital Pi
Ρ &#929; &Rho; Capital Rho
Σ &#931; &Sigma; Capital Sigma
Τ &#932; &Tau; Capital Tau
Υ &#933; &Upsilon; Capital Upsilon
Φ &#934; &Phi; Capital Phi
Χ &#935; &Chi; Capital Chi
Ψ &#936; &Psi; Capital Psi
Ω &#937; &Omega; Capital Omega
α &#945; &alpha; Small Alpha
β &#946; &beta; Small Beta
γ &#947; &gamma; Small Gamma
δ &#948; &delta; Small Delta
ε &#949; &epsilon; Small Epsilon
ζ &#950; &zeta; Small Zeta
η &#951; &eta; Small Eta
θ &#952; &theta; Small Theta
ι &#953; &iota; Small Iota
κ &#954; &kappa; Small Kappa
λ &#955; &lambda; Small Lambda
μ &#956; &mu; Small Mu
ν &#957; &nu; Small Nu
ξ &#958; &xi; Small Xi
ο &#959; &omicron; Small Omicron
π &#960; &pi; Small Pi
ρ &#961; &rho; Small Rho
ς &#962; &sigmaf; Small Final sigma
σ &#963; &sigma; Small Sigma
τ &#964; &tau; Small Tau
υ &#965; &upsilon; Small Upsilon
φ &#966; &phi; Small Phi
χ &#967; &chi; Small Chi
ψ &#968; &psi; Small Psi
ω &#969; &omega; Small Omega
ϑ &#977; &thetasym; Small Theta Symbol
ϒ &#978; &upsih; Upsilon with Hook
ϖ &#982; &piv; Pi Symbol

General Punctuation

Symbol Decimal Entity Description
&#8194; &ensp; En Space
&#8195; &emsp; Em Space
&#8201; &thinsp; Thin Space
&#8204; &zwnj; Zero-width Nonjoiner
&#8205; &zwj; Zero-width Joiner
&#8206; &lrm; Left-to-Right Mark
&#8207; &rlm; Right-to-Left Mark
&#8211; &ndash; Endash
&#8212; &mdash; Emdash
&#8216; &lsquo; Left Single Quotation Mark
&#8217; &rsquo; Right Single Quotation Mark
&#8218; &sbquo; Single Low 9 Quotation Mark
&#8220; &ldquo; Left Double Quotation Mark
&#8221; &rdquo; Right Double Quotation Mark
&#8222; &bdquo; Double Low 9 Quotation Mark
&#8224; &dagger; Dagger
&#8225; &Dagger; Double Dagger
&#8226; &bull; Bullet
&#8230; &hellip; Ellipses
&#8240; &permil; Per Mille
&#8242; &prime; Prime, Minutes, Feet
&#8243; &Prime; Double Prime, Seconds, Inches
&#8249; &lsaquo; Single Left Angle Quotation
&#8250; &rsaquo; Single Right Angle Quotation
&#8254; &oline; Overline
&#8260; &frasl; Fraction Slash
&#8364; &euro; Euro Symbol

Letter-like Symbols

Symbol Decimal Entity Description
&#8465; &image; Blackletter Capital I, Imaginary Part
&#8472; &weierp; Script Capital P, Power Set
&#8476; &real; Blackletter Capital R, Real Part
&#8482; &trade; Trademark
&#8501; &alefsym; Alef or First Transfinite Cardinal

Arrows

Symbol Decimal Entity Description
&#8592; &larr; Left Arrow
&#8593; &uarr; Up Arrow
&#8594; &rarr; Right Arrow
&#8595; &darr; Down Arrow
&#8596; &harr; Left-Right Arrow
&#8629; &crarr; Down Arrow with Corner Leftward
&#8656; &lArr; Leftward Double Arrow

Mathematical Operators

Symbol Decimal Entity Description
&#8704; &forall; For All
&#8706; &part; Partial Differential
&#8707; &exist; There Exists
&#8709; &empty; Empty Set, Null Set, Diameter
&#8711; &nabla; Nabla, Backward Difference
&#8712; &isin; Element Of
&#8713; &notin; Not an Element Of
&#8715; &ni; Contains as a Member
&#8719; &prod; N-ary Product, Product Sign
&#8721; &sum; N-ary Summation
&#8722; &minus; Minus Sign
&#8727; &lowast; Asterisk Operator
&#8730; &radic; Square Root, Radical Sign
&#8733; &prop; Proportional
&#8734; &infin; Infinity Symbol
&#8736; &ang; Angle
&#8743; &and; Logical And, Wedge
&#8744; &or; Logical Or, Vee
&#8745; &cap; Intersection, Cap
&#8746; &cup; Union, Cup
&#8747; &int; Integral
&#8756; &there4; Therefore
&#8764; &sim; Tilde Operator, Varies With, Similar To
&#8773; &cong; Approximately Equal To
&#8776; &ap; Almost Equal To, Asymptotic To
&#8800; &ne; Not Equal To
&#8801; &equiv; Identical To
&#8804; &le; Less Than or Equal To
&#8805; &ge; Greater Than or Equal To
&#8834; &sub; Subset Of
&#8835; &sup; Superset Of
&#8836; &nsub; Not a Subset Of
&#8838; &sube; Subset Of or Equal To
&#8839; &supe; Superset Of or Equal To
&#8853; &oplus; Circled Plus, Direct Sum
&#8855; &otimes; Circled Times, Vector Product
&#8869; &perp; Up Tack, Orthogonal To, Perpendicular
&#8901; &sdot; Dot Operator

Miscellaneous Technical Symbols

Symbol Decimal Entity Description
&#8968; &lceil; Left Ceiling
&#8969; &rceil; Right Ceiling
&#8970; &lfloor; Left Floor
&#8971; &rfloor; Right Floor
&#9001; &lang; Left-Pointing Angle Bracket
&#9002; &rang; Right-Pointing Angle Bracket

Geometric Shapes

Symbol Decimal Entity Description
&#9674; &loz; Lozenge

Miscellaneous Symbols

Symbol Decimal Entity Description
&#9824; &spades; Spade
&#9827; &clubs; Club
&#9829; &hearts; Heart
&#9830; &diams; Diamond